so why do some muslims think that dogs and music is haram when there are not any verses written about these things being forbidden in the Noble Quran? submitted by
i am not saying that the hadith is wrong but i am also not saying that the hadith is true too for example we all know that the way we do Salah is correct because they were multiple narrations about the Salah and we feel good the same is for Ghusl too
but my question now is about the things that are about what is Haram and for example music what is Halal and what is Haram is only decided by the one and only ALLAH(SWT) and there is not a single verse in the Noble Quran which forbids music sooo why do people think its Haram?
Introduction: submitted by
The purpose of this post is
to provide references, citations, and quotes from modern and classical scholarly opinions on why music is halal (aside from issues of bad lyrical content or the context in which it is played).
The purpose of this post is not
to debate the permissibility of music, or analyze ahadith. For detailed analyses of ahadith pertaining to music, follow the links below.
If you think music is haram, that is fine for you to follow for yourself. However, as this post will demonstrate, there is very significant ikhtilaf
(scholarly disagreement) on its permissibility, with many respected modern scholars, classical scholars, and even tabiin (2nd generation Muslims) and sahaba (companions of the prophet) allowing music. There is not ijma
(scholarly consensus) on its impermissibility. Please read the post before responding on this.
If you have suggestions of further articles, fatawa, references, or quotes to include, or suggested edits, feel free to leave a comment.
Note: I am Sunni, so most of these are from Sunni sources. The strongest traditions I found widely allowing music are from the Maliki, Zahiri, and Shafii madhabs. There are also Shia opinions allowing music, but I only included two Shia sources below. Please suggest more with links to the relevant marja’s websites if you know them. Also, I only list the following links for their relevance to the permissibility of music, I do not necessarily endorse the views of any particular scholar listed below.
The issue of music is one that we have a spectrum of opinion. Whether I say it is haram or halal, that is my opinion. In the end of the day, there are others who disagree and there are many major scholars in the world who consider this to be permissible with some conditions. -Sheikh Yasir Qadhi I. Fatawa and articles from modern scholars permitting music:
Fatawa from Grand Mufti of Egypt Shawki Allam, appointed by consensus of al-Azhar’s Council of Senior Scholars representing all 4 Sunni madhabs:
· Detailed explanation of the above fatawa from the Grand Mufti of Dar al-Ifta Missriyya available here: https://www.reddit.com/islam/comments/zh6mm/dar_al_ifta_on_the_issue_of_music/
Fatwa from the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar, Shaykh Jad al-Haqq: https://sailanmuslim.com/culture-heritage/fatwa-on-music-by-the-grand-mufti-and-shaykh-of-al-azhar-shaykh-jad-al-haq-ali-jad-al-haq/
Fatawa from Shaykh Yusuf Qaradawi, Chairman of the International Union of Muslim Scholars, on al-Azhar’s Council of Senior Scholars:
Fatwa by the High Council of Religious Affairs, Turkey’s national fatwa council, chaired by Dr. Abdurrahman Hackali: https://kurul-diyanet-gov-tr.translate.goog/Cevap-Ara/1010/muzigin-dindeki-yeri-nedir-?enc=QisAbR4bAkZg1HImMxXRn5PJ8DgFEAoa2xtNuyterRk%3D&_x_tr_sl=auto&_x_tr_tl=en&_x_tr_hl=en&_x_tr_pto=wapp
Fatwa of Ayatollah Khamenei allowing music on the basis of content and context: https://www.leader.ien/book/147/1?sn=23786
Article on Sheikh Adel al-Kalbani, former Imam of the Great Mosque of Mecca: https://gulfnews.com/world/gulf/saudi/scholars-divided-over-imams-fatwa-on-music-1.647422
· Note: al-Kalbani was forced to retract his opinion allowing music after making it public.
Fatwa “Music & Singing in the Balance of Islam,” by Sheikh Abdullah Bin Yusuf al-Judai, founding member of the European Council for Fatwa and Research, Senior Islamic Researcher at Leeds Grand Mosque: https://unity1.wordpress.com/2010/02/13/a-detailed-fatwa-about-music-and-singing-by-sheikh-abdullah-al-judai/amp/
Fatwa by Sheikh Abu Iyas, a Jordanian mufti: https://islamicsystem.blogspot.com/2012/04/q-shari-rule-on-songs-music-singing.html?m=1
Fatwa by Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, Senior Lecturer and Scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ijazah from Islamic University of Madinah, Fiqh Council of North America scholar: https://aboutislam.net/counseling/ask-the-scholamorals-manners/are-all-types-of-music-unlawful/
Article by Ikram Hawramani, al-Azhar researcher and software engineer, applying probabilistic statistical analysis of hadith on music. Besides the broken chain, he focuses on all the other reasons to doubt the commonly-cited Bukhari hadith: https://hawramani.com/listening-to-music-is-permissible-in-Islam/
Balanced list of ahadith and scholarly opinions from both sides of the debate over music, by al-Azhar scholar Omar Gebril: https://www.islamiqate.com/1355/what-is-the-islamic-ruling-on-music
Fatwa by Mufti Muhammad Ali Al-Hanooti, al-Azhar scholar and member of the North American Fiqh Council: https://www.islamawareness.net/Music/music_fatwa005.html
Fatwa by Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqui, president of Academy of Islamic Studies at UCLA: http://www.islamawareness.net/Music/music_fatwa999.html
Sheikh Yahya Rhodus, Founding Director of Al-Maqasid Islamic seminary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4uDdxB8uMiE
Dr. Jamal Badawi, Fiqh Council of North America scholar: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cPCzRj_6NfM
Dr. Jonathan Brown, Alwaleed bin Talal Chair of Islamic Civilization at Georgetown University: https://www.facebook.com/jonathan.a.brown.3/posts/10154194510784850
Discussion with Dr. Hamid Slimi, Chairman of the Canadian Council of Imams, PhD and ijazah in usul ul-fiqh: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pFxu5zjwj0k
Talk by Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, former member of Pakistan’s Council of Islamic Ideology, founder of the al-Mawrid Institute, Danish Sara, and Ghamidi Center of Islamic Learning; studied under of Maulana Maududi and Maulana Amin Ahsan Islahi; Singing and Music (Ghina aur Moseeqi): [https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLvDnnnkYLWQe4l4Oyx4DjXj1l8yztT2xw
Article by Dr. Shehzad Saleem, student of Ghamidi and al-Mawrid Foundation Fellow: http://www.shehzadsaleem.com/music-in-islam/
Article by Dr. Khalid Zaheer, student of Ghamidi and al-Mawrid scholar: http://khalidzaheer.com/is-music-prohibited-in-Islam/
Article by Sheikh Mohammad Nizami, al-Azhar scholar; London-based writer, lecturer, and consultant: http://nizami.co.uk/music-some-facts-of-the-matte#
Essay by Dr. Khaled Abou el Fadl on music and the Quran: https://www.searchforbeauty.org/2014/11/01/classical-music-and-the-qur-an-chapter-9-reasoning-with-god-reclaiming-shari-ah-in-the-modern-age/
Video compilation by Mufti Abu Layth al-Maliki; In Depth - Is Music allowed in Islam? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AXXuB9lxFoc
Talk by Dr. Adnan Ibrahim; Music is food for the soul: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZiIndC_7x2c
Interview with Dr. Shabir Ally; Q&A: Is Music Forbidden In Islam? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YE0nS0W01LE
Article by Imam Yahya Ederer on the permissibility of Music: https://www.virtualmosque.com/islam-studies/sciences-of-quran-and-hadith/regarding-the-permissibility-of-music/
Article by Saiyed Shahbazi, founder of the Center for Sufism & Islamic Studies, Pakistan: https://www.shahbazcenter.org/is-music-haram.htm
Article by Dr. Samer Dajani, Palestinian-Jordanian scholar and author. PhD in Islamic Studies from SOAS, University of London. He analyzes Bukhari’s perspective to show that not even Bukhari thought the hadith commonly attributed to him banned music: https://basira.academy/2020/06/03/why-did-imam-bukhari-leave-the-hadith-of-instruments-hanging/
Article interviewing mujtahid Mohsen Kadivar on music in Iran: https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2014/01/iran-islam-music-taboo-debate-tv-musicians-sunni-haram.html
Opinion by Maulana Wahiddudin Khan, Padma Vibhushan laureate (India’s 2nd highest civilian honor), and Indian spiritual leader: https://qr.ae/pGxm1c
Article on Sheikh Hassan Farhan al-Maliki permitting music: https://www.uscirf.gov/religious-prisoners-conscience/forb-victims-database/hassan-farhan-al-maliki
II. Opinions of Classical and Traditional Scholars, and Salafs Permitting Music:
- From the article “it is the right of any person to adopt beliefs that he sees as correct, and it is not permitted to restrict these [beliefs] or impose certain beliefs.” “Those [clerics] who ban singing or music in all its forms are extremists, as there is no evidence for banning it and that the prophet [peace be upon him] listened to it.”
It is sometimes claimed that there are no prominent scholars who ruled musical instruments permissible except for Yusuf Qaradawi only based on the opinion of Imam Ibn Hazm. This is completely false. There are many of classical scholars who held the permissibility of listening to music as long as the music is morally upright. Every Islamic culture in history has allowed music on a strong basis of classical scholarship, which has led to vibrant traditions of music flourishing in every Islamic culture. Companions of the Prophet who held this position:
Abdulah ibn Umar, Abdullah ib Jafar, Abdullah ibn al-Zubair, Hassan ibn Thabit, Muawiyah and Amr ibn al-As. Successors who Held this Position:
Al-Qadi Sharih, Said ibn al-Masyyib, Ata ibn abu Rabah, al-Zuhri, Al-Shabi and Sad ibn Ibrahim ibn Abdul-Rahman ibn Auwf who never started a conversation without playing the flute.
Imam al-Haramayn mentioned in al-Nihaya that the trustworthy biographers reported that Abdullah ibn al-Zubair [may Allah be pleased with them both] owned slave girls who played the flute. Once, ibn Umar entered upon him and he had a flute by his side. Ibn Umar said: “O companion of the messenger of Allah! What is this?” Abdullah ibn Zubayr gave it to him and ibn Umar looked at it closely, and said: “Is this a Syrian flute?’ Ibn al-Zubair replied: “It is used to balance the minds.” Prominent Scholars who Authored or Transmitted Opinions Permitting Music
This list is sourced from Al-Azhar fatawa, from Shawkani’s Nayl al-Awtar, from the article by Imam Yahya Ederer, and from fatwa by Sheikh Abdullah Bin Yusuf al-Judai (see section I):
· Abdullah bin Jafar bin Abi Talib (al-Aqd al-Fareed 6/12)
· Imam ibn Hazm (Al-Muhallah)
· Imam Abu Talib al-Makki (Qut al-Qulub)
· Imam Abu Hamed al-Ghazali (Ihya ulum ad-din)
· Imam al-Shawkani (Ibtal dawa al-Ijmaa ala mutlaq al-Sama)
· Imam Abdul-Ghani al-Nablusi (Idaahat al-Dalalaat fee sama al-alaat)
· Sultan al-Ulema al-Iz ibn Abdul-Salam (Rislat al-Sama)
· Al-Qadi Ibn Qutaiba al-Daynoor (al-Rukhsah fi al-Sama)
· Imam Ibn Tahir al-Qaisirani (al-Sama)
· Imam al-Thahabi (al-Rukhsah fil-Ghinaa wa al-Turb)
· Qadi Abu Bakr Ibn Al-Arabi al-Makki (Ahkam al-Quran)
· Sheikh Yusuf al-Majishun (#3399 ibn al-Khuthayma)
· Sheikh al-Islam Ibn Daqiq al-Id (Iqtinas al-Sawanih)
· Grand Imam of al-Azhar Jad Ali jad al-Haqq (fatwa #3280)
· Grand Sheikh of al-Azhar Mahmud Al-Shaltut (pg. 375 fatawa)
· Mufassir Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani (Kitab al-Aghani)
· Qadi Al-Mawardi (Kitab Aadab al-Dunya w'al-Din)
· Ibn Khaldun, Chief Maliki Qadi of Cairo, and historian (Muqaddimah, chapter 5, section 31)
· Abu al-Mawahib al-Shadhli (Farh al-Asma bi Rakhs al-Sima)
· Taj al-Din al-Fakihani (quoted in Nayl al-Awtar)
· Al-Rawiani (cited in Dar al-Ifta Missriyya fatwa #7000)
· Abu Mansur al-Bughdadi (cited in Dar al-Ifta Missriyya fatwa #7000)
· Abd al-Ghani al-Rafii (cited in Dar al-Ifta Missriyya fatwa #7000)
· Imām 'Ezz al-Din ibn 'abd al-Salām (Al-Tag wa al-Ikli)
· Imam Abu Bakr Al Adfawi (quoted in Nayl al-Awtar)
· Abul Mahasin Al Ruyani (quoted in Nayl al-Awtar)
· Abu Mansur Al Fawrani (quoted in Nayl al-Awtar)
· Minhal ibn Amr al-Asadi al-Kufi (cited by Imam Ahmad in his son’s book Jarh wa Ta'adeel)
· Al-Sheikh ibn al-Qammah (quoted in Farh al-Asma bi Rokhs al-Sima)
· Imam al-Haramayn (al-Nihaya, also quoted in Nayl al-Awtar) Examples of opinions from above-listed classical scholars include:
· The Shafii scholar Abu Talib al-Makki said “Of the Companions, ‘Abd Allah ibn Jafar and Abd Allah ibn az-Zubayr and al-Mughira ibn Shuba and Mu’awiya and others listened to music and singing.” He said further “Many of the excellent first believers, both Companions and Followers, have done that [singing] along with pious works.” And he said “The people of al-Hijaz with us in Mecca did not cease to listen to music and singing even in the most excellent of the days of the year, and these are The Few Days in which God commanded his servants to remember r him, such as the days of at-Tashriq. And the people of al-Medina, like the people of Mecca, have not ceased persisting in listening to music and singing up to this our time. We have known Abu Marwan the Qadi, who had slave-girls who chanted in public and whom he had prepared to sing to Sufis.” [quoted in Revival of the Religious Sciences, by Imam al-Ghazali; http://ghazali.org/articles/gz-music.pdf
· “Then, luxury and prosperity came to [the Arabs], because they obtained the spoils of the nations. They came to lead splendid and refined lives and to appreciate leisure. The singers (now) left the Persians and Byzantines. They descended upon the Hijaz and became clients of the Arabs. They all sang accompanied by lutes, pandores, lyres, and flutes. The Arabs heard their melodious use of sound, and they set their poems to music accordingly. In Medina, Nashit al-Farlsi, Tuways, and Sa'ib Khathir, a client of `Abdallah b. Jafar (b. Abt Talib), made their appearance. They heard the poems of the Arabs and set them to music. They did it well, and they became famous. Ma'bad and his class of singers, as well as Ibn Surayj and his ilk, learned from them. Continual and gradual progress was made in the craft of singing. Eventually, in the days of the `Abbasids, (the craft of singing) reached its perfection with Ibrahim b. al-Mahdi, Ibrahim al-Mawsili, (Ibrahim's) son Ishaq, and (Ishaq's) son Hammid. (The music) and the (musical) sessions of Baghdad during the ('Abbasid) dynasty have remained a topic of conversation down to the present time.” [Ibn Khaldun, al-Muqaddimah, chapter 5, section 31; http://muslimphilosophy.com/ik/Muqaddimah/Chapter5/Ch_5_31.htm
· Ibn Hazm said: “The messenger of Allah [pbuh] said: “Actions are judged according to intentions, and every person will get the reward according to what he intended.” [So], whoever listens to music as an aid to something unlawful, is immoral. The same applies to all things other than singing. And whoever listens to music seeking entertainment to give him strength in obeying Allah the Exalted and motivating him to pious acts, is good, obedient and his deed is lawful. Whoever intends neither obedience nor disobedience, his idleness is forgiven, such as the person who takes a walk in his orchard or sits on his doorstep for relaxation” [Al-Mahlai by Ibn Hazm (7/5670)]
· Al-Izz ibn Abd al-Salam said that singing—whether or not it is accompanied by music—may be a means of mending the heart. He said: “Mending hearts is through external factors. Hearts are mended by [listening to] the Qur’an, and these are the best of listeners; by exhortation, reminding [of Allah] in sermons and through making remembrance by the singing of the camel rider and chants; by the singing which is accompanied by different instruments such as flutes. If the one who listens to these instruments sees that it is permissible, he commits no sin, while he desists from listening that which there is a controversy out of extreme caution in religion.” [Al-Tag wa al-Iklil by the Maliki scholar al-Abdary].
· "At present we content ourselves with saying that music and dancing do not put into the heart what is not there already, but only fan into a flame dormant emotions. Therefore, if a man has in his heart that love of God which the law enjoins, it is perfectly lawful, nay, laudable in him to take part in exercises which promote it. On the other hand, if his heart is full of sensual desires, music and dancing will only increase them and are therefore unlawful for him. While, if he listens to them merely as a matter of amusement, they are neither lawful nor unlawful, but indifferent.” [The Alchemy of Happiness by Imam al-Ghazali]
Imam al-Shawkani lists many more opinions allowing music in his Nayl al-Awtar including:
· The muhaddith Abul Fadl Ibn Tahir comments that not even a single letter from the ahadith prohibiting music are sahih. He also says in his book on the permissibility of music that there is no dispute between the people of Medina that musical instruments were permissible and that the Zahiri madhab unanimously held this view as well.
· Abu Bakr Ibn Arabi, the great Maliki Qadi said in his Kitab Al Ahkam says there is not even a single Sahih Hadith that prohibits music.
· The Maliki Scholar Al Fakihani says I do not know of any evidence from the Quran or Sahih Hadith that show that music is haram.
· Imam Al Haramayn reports that the Great Sahabi Abdullah Ibn Zubayr owned many singing and dancing girls who would sing and dance for him.
· The historian Abul Faraj Al Isfahani transmits from the great sahabi and poet of the Prophet, Hasan Ibn Thabit that he would listen to music.
· The muhaddith Imam Abu Bakr Al Adfawi transmits from Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz that he would listen to music before he became a Khalifa. He also said there is no dispute between the people of Madinah that the Qadi of Madinah Ibrahim Ibn Saad would listen to music and said it is permissible.
· Ibn Samani says that Tawus Ibn Kaysan, the tabiin student of the sahabi and legendary mufassir Ibn Abbas said that music is permissible.
· The Shafi Scholar Abu Talib Al Makki in his book Qut Al Qulub says the muhaddith Manhal Ibn Amr would listen to musical instruments in his palace.
· The Shafi Scholar Abul Mahasin Al Ruyani transmits from Qafaal that the Maliki Madhab ruled that music, instruments, and singing were permissible.
· Abu Mansur Al Fawrani transmitted that music, instruments, and singing were permissible from Imam Malik as well. “Today, all the good things of life have been made lawful to you.” [Quran 5:5]
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